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Fiji islands / Viti / फ़िजी / فیجی / Ilhas Fidji

Fiji islands / Viti / फ़िजी / فیجی / Ilhas Fidji
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Fiji, (Fijian: Matanitu ko Viti; Fijian Hindustani: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of the Fiji Islands (Fijian: Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti; Fijian Hindustani: फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य,[citation needed] fiji dvip samooh ganarajya), is an island nation in the South Pacific Ocean east of Vanuatu, west of Tonga and south of Tuvalu. The country comprises an archipelago of about 322 islands, of which 106 are permanently inhabited, and 522 islets. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the population.

Etymology
Fiji's main island is known as Viti Levu and it is from this that the name "Fiji" is derived, though the common English pronunciation is based on that of their island neighbors in Tonga. Its emergence was best described as follows:
Fijians first impressed themselves on European consciousness through the writings of the members of the expeditions of Cook who met them in Tonga. They were described as formidable warriors and ferocious cannibals, builders of the finest vessels in the Pacific, but not great sailors. They inspired awe amongst the Tongans, and all their Manufactures, especially bark cloth and clubs, were highly esteemed and much in demand. They called their home Viti, but the Tongans called it Fisi, and it was by this foreign pronunciation, Fiji, first promulgated by Captain James Cook, that these islands are now known.

History

Pottery excavated from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500–1000 BC, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived; they may have had some influence on the new culture, and archaeological evidence shows that they would have then moved on to Tonga, Samoa and Hawai'i.
The first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 3500 years ago. Lapita pottery shards have been found at numerous excavations around the country. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to Melanesian culture to the western Pacific but have stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures such as those of Samoa and Tonga. Trade between these three nations long before European contact is quite obvious with Canoes made from native Fijian trees found in Tonga and Tongan words being part of the language of the Lau group of islands. Pots made in Fiji have been found in Samoa and even the Marquesas Islands. Across 1000 kilometres from east to west, Fiji has been a nation of many languages. Fiji's history was one of settlement but also of mobility. Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes was quite rampant and very much part of everyday life.[5] During the 19th century, Ratu Udre Udre is said to have consumed 872 people and to have made a pile of stones to record his achievement. Fijians today regard those times as "na gauna ni tevoro" (time of the devil). The ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle deterred European sailors from going near Fijian waters, giving Fiji the name Cannibal Isles, in turn Fiji was unknown to the rest of the outside world.
The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman visited Fiji in 1643 while looking for the Great Southern Continent. Europeans settled on the islands permanently beginning in the nineteenth century. The first European settlers to Fiji were Beachcombers, missionaries, whalers and those engaged in the then booming sandalwood and bêche-de-mer trade.
Ratu Seru Epenisa Cakobau was a Fijian chief and warlord from the island of Bau, off the eastern coast of Viti Levu, who united part of Fiji's warring tribes under his leadership. He then styled himself as King of Fiji or Tui Viti and then to Vunivalu or Protector after the Cession of Fiji to Great Britain. The British subjugated the islands as a colony in 1874, and the British brought over Indian contract labourers to work on the sugar plantations as the then Governor and also the first governor of Fiji, Arthur Charles Hamilton-Gordon, adopted a policy disallowing the use of native labour and no interference in their culture and way of life. In 1875-76, measles epidemic killed over 40,000 Fijians, about one-third of the Fijian population. The population in 1942 was approximately 210,000 of whom 94,000 were Indians, 102,000 native Fijians, 2,000 Chinese and 5,000 Europeans.
The British granted Fiji independence in 1970. Democratic rule was interrupted by two military coups in 1987 because the government was perceived as dominated by the Indo-Fijian (Indian) community. The second 1987 coup saw the British monarchy and the Governor General replaced by a non-executive President, and the country changed the long form of its name from Dominion of Fiji to Republic of Fiji (and to Republic of the Fiji Islands in 1997). The coups and accompanying civil unrest contributed to heavy Indian emigration; the population loss resulted in economic difficulties but ensured that Melanesians became the majority.
In 1990, the new Constitution institutionalised the ethnic Fijian domination of the political system. The Group Against Racial Discrimination (GARD) was formed to oppose the unilaterally imposed constitution and to restore the 1970 constitution. Sitiveni Rabuka, the Lieutenant Colonel who carried out the 1987 coup became Prime Minister in 1992, following elections held under the new constitution. Three years later, Rabuka established the Constitutional Review Commission, which in 1997 led to a new Constitution, which was supported by most leaders of the indigenous Fijian and Indo-Fijian communities. Fiji is re-admitted to the Commonwealth of Nations.

The new millennium brought along another coup, instigated by George Speight, that effectively toppled the government of Mahendra Chaudhry, who became Prime Minister following the 1997 constitution. Commodore Frank Bainimarama assumed executive power after the resignation, possibly forced, of President Mara. Fiji was rocked by two mutinies at Suva's Queen Elizabeth Barracks, later in 2000 when rebel soldiers went on the rampage. The High Court ordered the reinstatement of the constitution, and in September 2001, a general election was held to restore democracy, which was won by interim Prime Minister Laisenia Qarase's Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua party.[citation needed]

In 2005, amid much controversy, the Qarase government proposed a Reconciliation and Unity Commission, with power to recommend compensation for victims of the 2000 coup, and amnesty for its perpetrators. However, the military strongly opposed this bill, especially the army's commander, Frank Bainimarama. He agreed with detractors who said that it was a sham to grant amnesty to supporters of the present government who played roles in the coup. His attack on the legislation, which continued unremittingly throughout May and into June and July, further strained his already tense relationship with the government. In late November 2006 and early December 2006, Bainimarama was instrumental in the 2006 Fijian coup d'état. Bainimarama handed down a list of demands to Qarase after a bill was put forward to parliament, part of which would have offered pardons to participants in the 2000 coup attempt. He gave Qarase an ultimatum date of 4 December to accede to these demands or to resign from his post. Qarase adamantly refused to either concede or resign and on 5 December President, Ratu Josefa Iloilo, was said to have signed a legal order dissolving Parliament after meeting with Bainimarama.

In April 2009, the Fiji Court of Appeal ruled that the 2006 coup had been illegal. This began the 2009 Fijian constitutional crisis. President Iloilo abrogated the constitution, removed all office holders under the Constitution including all judges and the Governor of the Central Bank. He then reappointed Bainimarama as Prime Minister under his "New Order" and imposed a "Public Emergency Regulation" limiting internal travel and allowing press censorship.

For a country of its size, Fiji has large armed forces, and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping missions in various parts of the world. In addition, a significant number of former military personnel have served in the lucrative security sector in Iraq following the 2003 US-led invasion.

Geography
Fiji covers a total area of some 194,000 square kilometres (75,000 sq mi) of which around 10% is land.

Fiji is the hub of the South West Pacific, midway between Vanuatu and the Kingdom of Tonga. The archipelago is located between 176° 53′ east and 178° 12′ west. The 180° meridian runs through Taveuni but the International Dateline is bent to give uniform time to all of the Fiji group. With the exception of Rotuma, the Fiji group lies between 15° 42′ and 20° 02′ south. Rotuma is located 400 kilometres north of the group, 670 km from Suva, 12° 30′ south of the equator.

Fiji consists of 322 islands (of which 106 are inhabited) and 522 smaller islets. The two most important islands are Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The islands are mountainous, with peaks up to 1,300 metres (4,250 ft), and covered with thick tropical forests. Viti Levu hosts the capital city of Suva, and is home to nearly three quarters of the population. Other important towns include Nadi (the location of the international airport), and the second city -Lautoka (the location of a large sugar mill and a seaport). The main towns on Vanua Levu are Labasa and Savusavu. Other islands and island groups include Taveuni and Kadavu (the third and fourth largest islands respectively), the Mamanuca Group (just outside Nadi) and Yasawa Group, which are popular tourist destinations, the Lomaiviti Group, outside of Suva, and the remote Lau Group. Rotuma, some 500 kilometres (310 mi) north of the archipelago, has a special administrative status in Fiji. Fiji's nearest neighbour is Tonga. The climate in Fiji is tropical and warm most of the year round.

Other info
Oficial name:
Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti (Fijiano)
फ़िजी द्वीप समूह गणराज्य (Fijī dvīp samūh gaṇrājya)-Hindi
فیجی دویپ سموہ گنراجیہ (Fījī dvīp samūh ganrājyâ)-Arab
Republic of the Fiji Islands (English)

Independence:
10 October 1970

Area:
18.272 km2

Inhabitants:
940.000

Languages:
Na vosa vaka-Viti (Fijian), Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu), Arab and English

English [eng] 4,929 Europeans in Fiji (1976 census). An additional 10,276 or 1.8% of population (1976 census) are part-European, and speak English and Fijian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English
More information.

Fijian [fij] 330,441 in Fiji (1996 census). Population includes 10,000 in Kadavu (1,500 Nabukelevu), 20,000 in Northeast Viti Levu. Population total all countries: 334,061. Eastern half of Viti Levu and its eastern offshore islands, Kadavu Island, Vanua Levu and its offshore islands, Nayau, Lakeba, Oneata, Moce, Komo, Namuka, Kabara, Vulaga, Ogea, Vatoa islands as first language; other areas of Fiji as second language. Also spoken in Nauru, New Zealand, Vanuatu. Alternate names: Fiji, Standard Fijian, Eastern Fijian, Nadroga, Nadronga. Dialects: Kadavu (Ono, Tavuki, Nabukelevu), Southeast Viti Levu (Waidina, Lutu, Nandrau, Naimasimasi), Bau (Bauan, Mbau), Northeast Viti Levu (Tokaimalo, Namena, Lovoni), Central Vanua Levu (Baaravi, Seaqaaqaa, Nabalebale, Savusavu), Northeast Vanua Levu (Labasa, Dogotuki Saqani, Korolau), Southeast Vanua Levu (Navatu-C, Tunuloa, Naweni, Baumaa), West Vanua Levu (Navatu-B, Soolevu, Bua, Navakasiga). The southern part of Vanua Levu has several dialects similar to Bau. On the northern part of Vanua Levu and adjacent islands people speak a variety somewhat related to Bau. Bau is very similar to Standard Fijian, used as traditional lingua franca among Fijians. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian
More information.

Fijian, Western [wyy] 57,000 (1977 Lincoln). Population includes 38,500 in Waya (Waya and Ba-Navosa), 18,500 in Nadroga. Fiji Islands, western half of Viti Levu, Waya Islands. Alternate names: Fiji, Nadroga, Nadronga. Dialects: Nuclear Western Fijian (Nadrogaa, Tubaniwai, Baaravi), Waya (Nakoroboya, Noikoro, Magodro). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, West Fijian
More information.

Gone Dau [goo] 686 (2000). Eastern Fiji, Gone and Dau islands off western Vanua Levu. Alternate names: Gonedau. Dialects: Dialect chain to Bau (Standard) Fijian at the opposite end. Speakers learn Standard Fijian; it is not inherently intelligible to them. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian
More information.

Hindustani, Fijian [hif] 380,000 in Fiji (1991 UBS). Also spoken in Australia, USA. Alternate names: Fijian Hindi. Dialects: No significant regional variation. A type of Awadhi, also influenced by Bhojpuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone
More information.

Kiribati [gil] 5,300 in Fiji (1988). Population includes 3,000 or more Banaban. Alternate names: Gilbertese, Ikiribati. Dialects: Banaban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Ikiribati
More information.

Lauan [llx] 16,000 (1981 P. Geraghty). Eastern Fiji Islands, Lau, Nayau, Lakeba, Oneata, Moce, Komo, Namuka, Kabara, Vulaga, Ogea, Vatoa islands. Alternate names: Lau. Dialects: Lau, Vanua Balavu. In the middle of the East Fijian dialect chain; a cluster of dialects. Has some similarities to Bau Fijian; may be inherently intelligible with it. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian
More information.

Lomaiviti [lmv] 1,627 (2000 WCD). Islands east of Viti Levu: Koro, Makogai, Levuka, Ovalau, Batiki, Nairai, Gau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, East Fijian
More information.

Namosi-Naitasiri-Serua [bwb] 1,627 (2000 WCD). Namosi, Serua, Naitasiri provinces. Alternate names: Namosi-Naitaasiri-Seerua. Dialects: Batiwai, Tubai, Nalea. Namosi is a divergent variety of West Fijian. The dialects listed may be separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, West Fijian
More information.

Rotuman [rtm] 9,000 (1991 UBS). Population includes 2,500 on Rotuma, 300 overseas (1990 J. Vamarasi). Rotuma Island. Alternate names: Rotuna, Rutuman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, West Fijian-Rotuman, Rotuman

Capital city:
Suva

Meaning country name: From the Tongan name for the islands: Viti.

Description Flag:
The flag of Fiji was adopted on October 10, 1970. The state arms have been slightly modified but the flag has remained the same. It is a defaced sky-blue "Blue Ensign" (the actual Blue Ensign version of the flag is the Government ensign). It has remained unchanged since Fiji was declared a republic in 1987, despite calls from some politicians (such as Opposition Senator Atu Emberson-Bain) for changes.
The current flag is very similar to the colonial ensign used prior to independence, the main differences being the latter used a darker shade of blue and displayed the entire Fijian coat of arms as opposed to just the shield. While some reformists have called for the removal of the Union Flag, seeing it a British colonial emblem, others support its retention for the sake of historical continuity. The flags of other independent countries, such as Australia, New Zealand and Tuvalu retain the Union Flag in their national flags.
Some influential Fijians have called for the restoration of the full coat of arms to the flag. On November 30, 2005, Fiji's Great Council of Chiefs called for the two warrior figures, who guard the shield on the coat of arms, to be placed on the flag, along with a miniature canoe and the national motto, Rerevaka na kalou ka doka na tui ("Fear God and honour the queen") — symbols that were featured on the original flag of the Kingdom of Viti, the first unified Fijian state, forged by Seru Epenisa Cakobau in 1871.

Coat of arms:
The Coat of arms of Fiji was granted by Royal Letters Patent on 4th July 1908. It was featured on the colonial ensign and its shield remains on the current flag of Fiji.
The elements which appear in the coat of arms are:
The shield: features English elements of a Cross of St. George surmounted by a lion that has been modified to hold a cocoa pod. The quarters of cross contain sugarcane, a coconut palm, a bunch of bananas and a dove of peace.
The supporters: two Fijian warriors dressed in mulberry bark skirts, one of them holding a lance and the other a pineapple mace, all proper;
The crest: featuring a wreath Argent and Gules as well as a canoe with outrigger all proper;
The motto: displaying the national motto "Rerevaka na kalou ka doka na Tui" (Fear God and honour the King).

Motto:
" Rerevaka na Kalou ka Doka na Tui "
" Fear God and honour the Queen "

National Anthem:"Meda Dau Doka"
God Bless Fiji

Fijian

Meda dau doka ka vinakata na vanua
E ra sa dau tiko kina na savasava
Rawa tu na gauna ni sautu na veilomani
Biu na i tovo tawa savasava
CHORUS:
Me bula ga ko Viti
Ka me toro ga ki liu
Me ra turaga vinaka ko ira na i liuliu
Me ra liutaki na tamata
E na veika vinaka
Me oti kina na i tovo ca
Me da dau doka ka vinakata na vanua
E ra sa dau tiko kina na savasava
Rawa tu na gauna ni sautu na veilomani
Me sa biu na i tovo tawa yaga
Bale ga vei kemuni na cauravou e Viti
Ni yavala me savasava na vanua
Ni kakua ni vosota na dukadukali
Ka me da sa qai biuta vakadua

Translated

Let us show pride and honour our nation
Where righteous people reside
Where prosperity and fellowship may persevere
Abandon deeds that are immoral
CHORUS:
Let Fiji live on
And progress onwards
May our leaders be honourable men
Let them lead our people
To great things
And bring an end to all things immoral
Let us show pride and honour our nation
Where righteous people reside
Where prosperity and fellowship may persevere
Abandon deeds that are immoral
The burden of change lie on your shoulders youth of Fiji
Be the strength to cleanse our nation
Be wary and not harbour malice
For we must abandon such sentiments forever

English
Verse 1:
Blessing grant oh God of nations on the isles of Fiji
As we stand united under noble banner blue
And we honour and defend the cause of freedom ever
Onward march together
God bless Fiji
CHORUS:
For Fiji, ever Fiji, let our voices ring with pride
For Fiji, ever Fiji, her name hail far and wide,
A land of freedom, hope and glory, to endure what ever befall
May God bless Fiji
Forever more!
Verse 2
Blessing grant oh God of nations on the isles of Fiji
Shores of golden sand and sunshine, happiness and song
Stand united, we of Fiji, fame and glory ever
Onward march together
God bless Fiji.
and so on and so forth

Internet Page: www.fiji.gov.fj
www.bulafiji.com

Fiji isl in diferent languages

eng | bam | bis | cor | dan | eus | fao | glv | ibo | jav | jnf | kin | lin | nld | nor | por | run | srd | swa | swe | tur: Fiji
afr | bre | cat | fra | hat | ina | mlg | nrm | oci | ron | wln: Fidji
ces | dsb | est | hrv | hsb | lav | slk | slv | vor: Fidži
deu | ltz | nds: Fidschi / Fidſchi
ita | lld | rup: Figi
ast | spa: Fiyi
ind | msa: Fiji / فيجي
kaa | uzb: Fidji / Фиджи
smo | tah: Fiti
som | wol: Fiiji
arg: Fiyi; Fiji; Fichi
aze: Fici / Фиҹи
bos: Fidži / Фиџи
crh: Fici / Фиджи
cym: Ffiji
epo: Fiĝoj; Fiĝioj
fij: Viti
fin: Fidži / Fidzhi
frp: Fidj•i
fry: Fidzj
fur: Fizi
gla: Fìdi
gle: Fidsí / Fidsí
glg: Fidxi
haw: Pīkī
hun: Fidzsi; Fidzsi-szigetek
isl: Fídjieyjar
kmr: Fîcî / Фищи / فیجی
kur: Fîjî / فیژی
lat: Insulae Fidzienses; Insulae Vitienses; Insulae Fisienses; Viti
lit: Fidžis
mlt: Fiġi
mol: Fidji / Фиӂи
mri: Whītī
pol: Fidżi
que: Phiyi
rmy: Fiji / क़िजी
roh: Fidschi
scn: Figgi
slo: Figxi / Фиджи
sme: Fižisullot; Fijisullot
smg: Fėdžis
sqi: Fixhi
tet: Fijí
tgl: Pidyi
ton: Fisi
tpi: Fitji
tuk: Fiji / Фиджи
vie: Phi-gi
vol: Ficiyuäns
zza: Fici
abq | alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kjh | kom | krc | kum | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Фиджи (Fidži)
bak: Фиджи / Fidji
bel: Фіджы / Fidžy
kaz: Фиджи / Fïdjï / فيدجي
kir: Фиджи (Fidǧi)
mkd: Фиџи (Fidži)
mon: Фижи (Fiǧi)
srp: Фиџи / Fidži
tat: Фиджи / Fici
tgk: Фиҷи / فیجی / Fiçi
ukr: Фіджі (Fidži)
ara: فيجي (Fīǧī); جزر فيجي (Ǧuzuru Fīǧī); جزر الفيجي (Ǧuzuru l-Fīǧī); جزائر الفيجي (Ǧazāʾiru l-Fīǧī); الفيجي (al-Fīǧī); جزر فيدجي (Ǧuzuru Fīdǧī); جزائر فيدجي (Ǧazāʾiru Fīdǧī); فيدجي (Fīdǧī); جزر الفيدجي (Ǧuzuru l-Fīdǧī); جزائر الفيدجي (Ǧazāʾiru l-Fīdǧī); الفيدجي (al-Fīdǧī)
fas: فیجی (Fījī)
prs: فیجی (Fījī)
pus: فيجي (Fījī)
uig: فىجى / Fiji / Фиджи
urd: فیجی (Fījī); فجی (Fijī)
div: ފިޖީ (Fijī)
heb: פיג׳י (Fîjî); איי-פיג׳י (Iye-Fîjî)
lad: פ'יג'י / Fidji
yid: פֿידזשי (Fidži)
amh: ፊጂ (Fiji)
ell: Φίτζι (Fítzi)
hye: Ֆիջի (Fiǧi)
kat: ფიჯი (Ṗiǧi)
hin: फ़िजी (Fijī); फिजी (Pʰijī)
ben: ফিজি (Pʰiji)
pan: ਫਿਜੀ (Pʰijī)
kan: ಫಿಜಿ (Pʰiji)
mal: ഫിജി (Pʰiji)
tam: பிஜி (Piji)
tel: ఫిజీ (Pʰijī); ఫిజి (Pʰiji)
zho: 斐済/斐济 (Fěijì)
jpn: フィジー (Fijī)
kor: 피지 (Piji)
mya: ဖီဂ္ယီ (Pʰiji)
tha: ฟิจิ (Fiči)
khm: ហ្វីហ្ស៊ី (Hvīhsī); ហ្វីជី (Hvīčī)
Date: 2010-03-07 22:21:44

Fiji islands Viti फ़िजी فیجی Ilhas Oceania flag bandeiras

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