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Aolepān Aorōkin in M̧ajeļ / Marshall Islands / Ilhas Marshall

Aolepān Aorōkin in M̧ajeļ / Marshall Islands / Ilhas Marshall
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officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), is a Micronesian nation of atolls and islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, just west of the International Date Line and just north of the Equator. This nation of roughly 62,000 people is located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia, and south of the U.S. territory of Wake Island, to which it lays claim. In 1986 independence was attained under a Compact of Free Association with the
United States.

History
Little is clearly understood about the early history of the Marshall Islands. Researchers agree on little more than that successive waves of migratory peoples from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific about 3,000 years ago, and that some of them landed on and remained on these islands. The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1529. They were named for English explorer John Marshall, who visited them in 1799. The Marshall Islands were claimed by Spain in 1874.

Following papal mediation and German compensation of $4.5 million, Spain recognized Germany's claim in 1885, which established a protectorate and set up trading stations on the islands of Jaluit and Ebon to carry out the flourishing copra (dried coconut meat) trade. Marshallese Iroij (high chiefs) continued to rule under indirect colonial German administration.

At the beginning of World War I, Japan assumed control of the Marshall Islands. The Japanese headquarters was established at the German center of administration, Jaluit. On January 31, 1944 American forces landed on Kwajalein atoll and U.S. Marines and Army troops later took control of the islands from the Japanese on February 3, following intense fighting on Kwajalein and Enewetak atolls. In 1947, the United States, as the occupying power, entered into an agreement with the UN Security Council to administer much of Micronesia, including the Marshall Islands, as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

From 1946 to 1958, it served as the Pacific Proving Grounds for the United States, and was the site of 67 nuclear tests on various atolls. A significant radar installation was constructed on Kwajalein atoll.

On May 1, 1979, in recognition of the evolving political status of the Marshall Islands, the United States recognized the constitution of the Marshall Islands and the establishment of the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The constitution incorporates both American and British constitutional concepts.

There have been a number of local and national elections since the Republic of the Marshall Islands was founded. The United Democratic Party, running on a reform platform, won the 1999 parliamentary election, taking control of the presidency and cabinet.

The islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US in 1986. Trusteeship was ended under United Nations Security Council Resolution 683 of December 22, 1990. Until 1999 the islanders received US$180M for continued American use of Kwajalein atoll, US$250M in compensation for nuclear testing, and US$600M in other payments under the compact.

Despite the constitution, the government was largely controlled by traditional chiefs. It was not until 1999, following corruption allegations, that the aristocratic government was overthrown, with Imata Kabua replaced by the 'commoner' Kessai Note.

Original settlement
Although the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC, little is known of their early history. People traveled by canoe between islands using traditional stick charts

Arrivals of the Europeans
Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar was the first European to see the islands in 1526, but they remained virtually unvisited by Europeans until the arrival of British Captain John Charles Marshall in 1788. The islands were named after him in the British maps. However, they were claimed under the Spanish sovereignty as part of the Spanish Oceania. In 1874 the Spanish sovereignty was recognized by the international community. They were sold to Germany in 1884 through papal mediation.

A German trading company settled on the islands in 1885. They became part of the protectorate of German New Guinea some years later.

World War I
Under German Imperial control, and even before then, the Marshall Islands were from time to time visited by Japanese traders and fishermen, but contact with the islanders was not on a regular basis. After the Meiji Restoration the Japanese government undertook a policy of turning Japan into a great economic and military power in East Asia.

In 1914, Japan joined the Entente powers during World War I, and found it possible to capture German colonies in China and Micronesia. On September 29, 1914, Japanese troops occupied the atoll of Enewetak, and on September 30, 1914 the atoll of Jaluit the administrative center of the Marshall Islands. After the war, on June 28, 1919, Germany renounced all of its Pacific possessions, including the Marshall Islands. On December 17, 1920, the Council of the League of Nations approved the mandate for Japan to take over all former German colonies in the Pacific Ocean, located north of the equator. The Administrative Center of the Marshall Islands atoll remained Jaluit.

Unlike the German Empire, which had economic interests primarily in Micronesia, the accession of the territory to Japan, a small area and with few resources, would to some extent alleviate Japan's problem of increasing population but the ever increasing scarcity of land to house the exploding population. During the years of colonial rule in the Marshall Islands Japan moved more than 1,000 Japanese to the Marshall Islands. Unlike in the Mariana Islands and Palau, their share in the archipelago never exceeded the number of indigenous people.

Under Japanese rule a greatly enlarged administration was introduced and local leaders were appointed by the Japanese, which weakened the authority of local traditional leaders. Japan also tried to change the social organization in the islands from Matrilineality to the Japanese Patriarchal system, but with no success. In addition during the 30s one third of all land up to the high water level was declared the property of the Japanese government. On the archipelago, before it banned foreign traders, the activities of Catholic and Protestant missionaries were allowed.

Indigenous people were educated in Japanese schools, studying Japanese language and Japanese culture. This policy was the government strategy not only in the Marshall Islands, but on all the other mandated territories in Micronesia. In March 27, 1933, Japan left the League of Nations, but despite that, it continued to manage the islands in the region and in the late 1930s, even started the construction of air bases on some atolls, which also further served local residents. The Marshall Islands were an important geographical position, being the easternmost point in Japan's defensive ring at the beginning of World War II.

Independence
In 1979, the Government of the Marshall Islands was officially established and the country became self-governing.

In 1986, the Compact of Free Association with the United States entered into force, granting the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) its sovereignty. The Compact provided for aid and U.S. defense of the islands in exchange for continued U.S. military use of the missile testing range at Kwajalein Atoll. The independence procedure was formally completed under international law in 1990, when the UN officially ended the Trusteeship status.

Geography
The Marshalls consist of 29 atolls and five major islands, which form two parallel groups--the "Ratak" (sunrise) chain and the "Ralik" (sunset) chain. Two-thirds of the nation's population lives in Majuro and Ebeye. The outer islands are sparsely populated due to lack of employment opportunities and economic development.

Location: Oceania, group of atolls and reefs in the North Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to Papua New Guinea

Geographic coordinates: 9°00′N 168°00′E / 9°N 168°E / 9; 168

Map references: Oceania

Area:
total: 181.3 km²
land: 181.3 km²
water: 0 km²
note: includes the atolls of Bikini, Enewetak, and Kwajalein

Area - comparative: about the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 0 km

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
territorial sea: 12 nm

Maritime boundaries:

Micronesia
Kiribati
Climate: wet season from May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Likiep 10 m

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals

Land use:
arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 60%
permanent pastures: 0%
forests and woodland: 0%
other: 40%

Irrigated land: NA km²

Natural hazards: occasional typhoons

Environment - current issues: inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: two archipelagic island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands; Bikini and Enewetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

Other info

Oficial name:
Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ
Republic of the Marshall Islands

Independence:
October 21, 1986

Area:
181.40 km2

Inhabitants:
54.000

Languages:
Kajin M̧ajeļ and English
English [eng] 600 in Marshall Islands (2004). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English
More information.

Marshallese [mah] 43,900 in Marshall Islands (1979 Bender). Also spoken in Nauru. Alternate names: Ebon. Dialects: Rälik, Ratak. Two inherently intelligible dialects. Speech on Ujelang, the westernmost island, is slightly less homogeneous. Lexical similarity 33% with Ponapean. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Marshallese

Capital city:
Dalap-Uliga-Darrit

Meaning country name:
Named after British Captain John Marshall, who first documented the existence of the islands in 1788.

Description Flag:
The flag of the Marshall Islands, an island nation in the Pacific, was adopted upon the start of self-governance, May 1, 1979.
The Marshall Islands were part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands administered by the United States, from which the Marshall Islands and Micronesia split. In common with other island nations in the region, this flag features the symbolic representation of the islands' place within the ocean. The rising diagonal band represents the equator, the star above representing this Northern Hemisphere archipelago. The white and orange portions of the band represent, respectively, the Ratak Chain ("sunrise") and the Ralik Chain ("sunset"), as well as symbolizing peace and courage. The star's 24 points represent the number of electoral districts, while the four elongated points represent the principal cultural centers of Majuro, Jaluit, Wotje and Ebeye.

Coat of arms:
The coat of arms of the Marshall Islands consists of a blue background, which represents the sea. On the blue background, there is an angel with outstretched wings symbolizing peace. Behind the angel, there are two islands with an outrigger canoe and a palm tree. On the upper left and right in the shield are a red and white stripe. Behind the shield there is a stylized nautical chart. In the ring above the shield is the phrase Government of the Marshall Islands, and below, the national motto, Jepilpin ke Ejukaan (in Marshallese, "Accomplishment Through Joint Effort".

Motto:
"Jepilpilin ke ejukaan" ("Accomplishment through Joint Effort")

National Anthem: Forever Marshall Islands

Marshallese language

Aelon eo ao ion lometo;
Einwot wut ko loti ion dren elae;
Kin meram in Mekar jen ijoilan;
Erreo an romak ioir kin meramin mour;
Iltan pein Anij eweleosim woj;
Kejolit kij kin ijin jikir emol;
Ijjamin Ilok jen in aolemo ran;
Anij an ro jemem wonakke im kej rammon Aelin kein am.

English lyrics

My island (heart) lies o'er the ocean;
Like a wreath of flowers upon the sea;
With a (the) light of Maker from far above;
Shining the with the brilliance of rays of life;
Our Father's wondrous creation;
Bequeathed to us, our Motherland;
I'll never leave my dear home sweet home;
God of our forefathers protect and bless forever Marshall Islands.

Internet Page: www.visitmarshallislands.com
www.rmiembassyus.org

Marshall islands in diferent languages

eng: Marshall Islands
arg | spa: Islas Marshall
deu | nds: Marshallinseln / Marſhallinſeln
dsb | hsb: Marshallowe kupy
fra | jnf: Îles Marshall
glg | oci: Illas Marshall
ind | msa: Kepulauan Marshall / كڤولاوان مارشال
kin | run: Amazinga ya Mareshali
afr: Marshall-eilande
ast: Islles Marxall
aze: Marşall adaları / Маршалл адалары
bis: Masal Aelan
bos: Maršalovi otoci / Маршалови отоци
bre: Inizi Marshall
cat: Illes Marshall
ces: Marshallovy ostrovy
cor: Ynysow Marshall
crh: Marşall Adaları / Маршалл Адалары
cym: Ynysoedd Marshall
dan: Marshalløerne
epo: Marŝaloj
est: Marshalli Saared
eus: Marshall uharteak
fao: Marshalloyggjarnar
fin: Marshallinsaaret
frp: Iles March•al
fry: Marshalleilannen
fur: Isulis Marshall
gla: Na h-Eileanan Mharshall
gle: Na hOileáin Marshall / Na hOileáin Marṡall
glv: Ny h-Ellanyn Varshyl
hat: Machal
hrv: Maršalovi otoci
hun: Marshall-szigetek
ibo: Agwe-etiti Mashal
ina: Insulas Marshall
isl: Marshalleyjar
ita: Isole Marshall
jav: Kepulauan Marshall
kaa: Marshall atawları / Маршалл атаўлары
kmr: Adaêd Marşalê / Адаед Маршале / ئادایێد مارشالێ; Cizîrêd Marşalê / Щьзиред Маршале / جزیرێد مارشالێ
kur: Marşalên / مارشالێن
lat: Insulae Marsalienses
lav: Māršala salas
lin: Monɛ́nɛ ya Marshall
lit: Maršalo salos
lld-bad: Isoles Marshall
lld-grd: Ijules Marshall
ltz: Marshallinselen / Marſhallinſelen
mah: Aelōn̄ in M̧ajeļ
mlg: Nosy Marshalla
mlt: Gżejjer Marxall
mol: Insulele Marshall / Инсулеле Маршалл
nld: Marshalleilanden
nno: Marshalløyane
nob: Marshalløyene
nrm: Îles du Mach’cha
pol: Wyspy Marshalla
por: Ilhas Marshall; Ilhas Marechal
que: Marshall W’atakuna
rmy: Dvipa Maršall / द्वीपा मार्शाल्ल
roh: Inslas da Marshall
ron: Insulele Marshall
rup: Insulile Marshall
scn: Ìsuli Marshall
slk: Marshallove ostrovy
slo: Marsxal Ostrovis / Маршал Островис
slv: Maršallovi otoki
sme: Marshallsullot
smg: Maršala Saluos
smo: Atu Malesala
sqi: Ishujt Marshall
srd: Isulas Marshall
swa: Visiwa vya Marshall
swe: Marshallöarna
tet: Nusar Marxál
ton: ʻOtumotu Masalo
tpi: Masel Ailan
tuk: Marşal adalary / Маршалл адалары
tur: Marşallar; Marshall Adaları
uzb: Marshall orollari / Маршалл ороллари
vie: Quần đảo Mác-san
vol: Marjaluäns
vor: Marshalli Saarõq
wln: Iyes Marshall
wol: Dunu Marsaal
zza: Adey Marşali; Gırawê Marşali
alt: Маршаллов ортолыктар (Maršallov ortolyktar)
bak: Маршалл утрауҙары / Marşall utrauźarı
bel: Маршалавы астравы / Maršałavy astravy; Маршалавы выспы / Maršałavy vyspy
bul: Маршалови острови (Maršalovi ostrovi)
che: Маршалл гӀайреш (Maršall ġajreš)
chm: Маршалловый остров-влак (Maršallovyj ostrov-vlak)
kaz: Маршалл аралдары / Marşall araldarı / مارشالل ارالدارى
kir: Маршалл аралдары (Maršall araldary)
kjh: Маршаллово олтырыхтар (Maršallovo oltyryĥtar)
krc: Маршалл айрымканлары (Maršall ajrymkanlary)
kum: Маршалл атавлары (Maršall atavlary)
mkd: Маршалски острови (Maršalski ostrovi)
mon: Маршаллын арлууд (Maršallyn arluud)
oss: Маршаллы сакъадӕхтӕ (Maršally saḳadäĥtä)
rus: Маршалловые острова (Maršallovyje ostrova)
srp: Маршалска острва / Maršalska ostrva
tat: Маршалл утраулары / Marşall utrawları
tgk: Ҷазираҳои Маршал / جزیرههای مرشل / Çazirahoi Marşal
tyv: Маршалл ортулуктар (Maršall ortuluktar)
ukr: Маршаллові острови (Maršallovi ostrovy)
ara: جزر مارشال (Ǧuzuru Māršāl); جزر مرشال (Ǧuzuru Maršāl); جزائر مارشال (Ǧazāʾiru Māršāl); جزائر مرشال (Ǧazāʾiru Maršāl)
fas: جزایر مارشال / Jazâyere Mâršâl
prs: جزایر مارشال (Jazāyer-e Māršāl)
pus: د مارشال ټاپوګان (də Māršāl ṫāpogān)
uig: مارشال ئاراللىرى / Marshal aralliri / Маршалл араллири
urd: جزائر مارشل (Jazāʾir-e Māršal)
div: މާށަލް އައިލެންޑްސް (Māŝal A'ilenḋs)
heb: איי-מרשל (Iye-Maršal); איי-מארשאל (Iye-Mâršâl)
lad: איזלאס מארשאל / Izlas Marshal
yid: מאַרשאַל-אינדזלען (Maršal-Indzlen)
amh: የማርሸል ደሴቶች (yä-Maršäl dässetoč)
ell-dhi: Νησιά Μάρσαλ (Nīsiá Mársal)
ell-kat: Νῆσοι Μάρσαλ (Nī̃soi Mársal)
hye: Մարշալյան կղզիներ (Maršalyan kġziner)
kat: მარშალის კუნძულები (Maršalis kundzulebi)
ben: মার্শাল দ্বীপপুঞ্জ (Māršāl dbīppuñjô)
pan: ਮਾਰਸ਼ਲ ਟਾਪੂ (Māršal ṭāpū)
kan: ಮಾರ್ಶಲ್ ದ್ವೀಪಗಳು (Māršal dvīpagaḷu)
mal: മാര്ഷല് ദ്വീപുകള് (Mārṣal dvīpukaḷ); മാര്ഷല് ഐലന്റ്സ് (Mārṣal Ailanṟs)
tam: மார்ஷல் தீவுகள் (Māršal tīvukaḷ)
tel: మార్షల్ దీవులు (Mārṣal dīvulu)
zho: 馬紹爾群島/马绍尔群岛 (Mǎshào'ěr Qúndǎo)
jpn: マーシャル諸島 (Māsharu Shotō)
kor: 마셜제도 (Masyeol Jedo)
mya: မာရ္ဟယ္က္ဝ္ယန္းစု (Mašɛ Kyũsú)
tha: หมู่เกาะมาร์แชล ([h]Mū̀kɔ Mā[r]čʰǣn); หมู่เกาะมาร์แชลล์ ([h]Mū̀kɔ Mā[r]čʰǣn[l])
khm: កោះម៉ាស្យល (Kōḥ Māsyal); កោះម៉ាសាល (Kōḥ Māsāl)
Date: 2010-03-08 01:07:31

Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ Marshall Islands Ilhas Oceania flag bandeiras

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